PURPOSE: To report clinical efficacy, predictors of success, and safety of primary selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) used in treatment-naive patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Treatment-naive patients with OAG or OHT. METHODS: Patients randomized to SLT or topical medication and treated to predefined target intraocular pressures (IOPs) requiring ≥20% IOP reduction from baseline for all disease severity levels. OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial (early) absolute IOP-lowering at 2 months. Achievement of drop-free disease-control: meeting target IOP without disease progression or need for additional topical medication over 36 months after SLT. Predictors of early absolute IOP-lowering and drop-free disease-control after single initial SLT. Frequency of laser-related complications. RESULTS: A total of 611 eyes (195 OHT and 416 OAG) of 355 patients received SLT, and 622 eyes (185 OHT and 437 OAG) of 362 patients received topical medication at baseline. Early absolute IOP-lowering after SLT was no different between OHT and OAG eyes (adjusted mean difference = -0.05 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.6 to 0.5 mmHg; P = 0.85). No difference was noted in early absolute IOP-lowering between topical medication and primary SLT (adjusted mean difference = -0.1 mmHg; 95% CI, -0.6 to 0.4 mmHg; P = 0.67). Early absolute IOP-lowering with primary SLT was positively associated with baseline IOP (coefficient 0.58; 95% CI, 0.53-0.63; P < 0.001) and negatively with female gender (coefficient -0.63; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.02; P = 0.04). At 36 months, 536 eyes (87.7% of 611 eyes) of 314 patients (88.5% of 355 patients) were available for analysis. Some 74.6% of eyes (400 eyes) treated with primary SLT achieved drop-free disease-control at 36 months; 58.2% (312 eyes) after single SLT. Total SLT power and 2-month IOP were predictors of drop-free disease-control at 36 months after single SLT. Six eyes of 6 patients experienced immediate post-laser IOP spike (>5 mmHg from pretreatment IOP) with 1 eye requiring treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Primary SLT achieved comparable early absolute IOP-lowering in OHT versus OAG eyes. Drop-free disease-control was achieved in approximately 75% eyes at 36 months after 1 or 2 SLTs, the majority of these after single SLT. These analyses are exploratory but support primary SLT to be effective and safe in treatment-naive OAG and OHT eyes.
Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom.