Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) is a rare congenital disorder typified by localized or generalized cutaneous vascular anomalies, which dissipate over time. We review the diagnostic approach to CMTC and present a comprehensive examination of its ocular manifestations. Additionally, we offer recommendations for the ophthalmologic workup for patients with CMTC. Finally, we examine the possible causes of CMTC and summarize the current efforts to establish an etiologic mechanism for this disease. Thirty-three published cases of CMTC with ocular anomalies are examined in detail. CMTC is diagnosed based on a specific set of congenital cutaneous symptoms, principally congenital reticular erythema that is unresponsive to local warming and absence of venectasia within the skin lesions. Ocular findings are not currently employed in this diagnostic process, likely due to an incomplete understanding into their presentation, frequency, and natural history. We show that the majority of ophthalmic manifestations are congenital, with glaucoma and posterior segment anomalies, consisting of retinal perfusion defects and vascular abnormalities, as the most frequently reported findings. Typical ophthalmic medical and surgical interventions appear to be effective for management of these CMTC-related pathology. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathophysiology of CMTC remains unknown, which obfuscates efforts to identify, examine, and initiate treatment in patients. While the ophthalmic community has traditionally viewed glaucoma as the classic ocular anomaly of CMTC, this dataset advocates for the prompt investigation of posterior segment abnormalities as well. However, our understanding of CMTC's ocular anomalies is complicated by a lack of reporting and/or incomplete (or nonexistent) ophthalmic examinations, and we strongly encourage comprehensive ophthalmic examinations for all CMTC patients at the time of diagnosis, followed by appropriate screening and surveillance throughout life. We believe these recommendations will spur additional data and disease insights that may be useful for future refinements to CMTC diagnostic algorithms.
Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.Full article
9.1.1 Congenital glaucoma, Buphthalmos (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.1 Developmental glaucomas)
9.1.2 Juvenile glaucoma (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.1 Developmental glaucomas)
9.4.15 Glaucoma in relation to systemic disease (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.4 Glaucomas associated with other ocular and systemic disorders)