PURPOSE: To evaluate episcleral vasculature in corneal limbus with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in normal controls, port-wine stain (PWS) patients, and Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) patients. METHODS: Unilateral eyes from 18 normal controls (25.41 ± 4.00 years), 16 PWS patients (21.35 ± 11.05 years), and 8 SWS patients with ipsilateral late-onset glaucoma (22.13 ± 7.82 years). Each subject underwent slit-lamp examination, applanation tonometry, and OCTA. All OCTA scans were performed using an OCTA system operating at a wavelength of 1050-nm in four quadrants (superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal). The scans were delineated into conjunctival and episcleral layers using IMAGEnet6 for analysis. RESULTS: Slit-lamp and OCTA images demonstrated dense dilated episcleral vessels in PWS and SWS patients, particularly in the SWS group. The mean limbal involvements of episcleral vascular anomalies under slit lamp were respectively 0.00 ± 0.00, 5.44 ± 2.92, and 8.88 ± 2.70 clock hours in the control, PWS, and SWS groups (F = 58.46, P < 0.01). Quantitative analysis of OCTA scans showed that the episcleral vessel density in controls, PWS, and SWS groups were 25.03% ± 1.47%, 28.28% ± 1.96%, and 33.59% ± 3.00%, respectively (F = 18.17, P < 0.01). We also observed higher episcleral vessel diameter index in the SWS and PWS groups in comparison with the controls, particularly in the SWS group (P < 0.01). The vessel measurements, including density and diameter, were significantly correlated with the increased IOP and cup-to-disc (C/D) in SWS patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of OCTA in PWS and SWS patients and represents direct pathoanatomic evidence for episcleral alterations in SWS patients. The episcleral vessel measurements correlated with the increased IOP and C/D in SWS patients, indicating the episcleral vascular hypertrophy may be a risk factor for glaucoma in adult SWS patients.
2.14 Optic disc (Part of: 2 Anatomical structures in glaucoma)
2.3 Sclera (Part of: 2 Anatomical structures in glaucoma)
9.4.15 Glaucoma in relation to systemic disease (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.4 Glaucomas associated with other ocular and systemic disorders)
3.9 Pathophysiology (Part of: 3 Laboratory methods)