INTRODUCTION: Behçet's disease is a systemic disease of unknown etiology. Its ocular manifestations are multiple and polymorphic, with uveitis at the top of the list. Classically, uveitis in Behçet's disease does not cause elevation of intraocular pressure. However, this may be found in 10 to 20% of cases, secondary to trabeculitis, trabecular obstruction by inflammatory cells, anterior or posterior synechiae, or induced by prolonged use of corticosteroids. Its occurrence is a major complication, the management of which is especially delicate when glaucoma occurs. The purpose of this study was to study the factors predictive of glaucoma in Behçet's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all the charts of patients consecutively hospitalized for Behçet's disease over a period of 8years in the ophthalmology A department of the specialty hospital of Rabat university medical center. RESULTS: Fifty patients were treated for Behçet's disease during the study period. There were 41 men (82%), and 9 women (18%). Glaucoma was diagnosed in 11 patients (22%). The mean age of this subgroup was 31years, with a gender ratio of 6 women/5 men. The glaucoma was associated with anterior synechiae in 4 cases, primary open-angle glaucoma in 5 cases, neovascular glaucoma in 1 case and seclusio pupillae in 1 case. Therapeutically, all patients were on glaucoma eye drops, and five underwent filtering surgery. Statistically, on univariate analysis, ocular hypertension was observed particularly in patients with low initial visual acuity (less than 1/10) (P=0.001), with severe posterior segment involvement, especially retinal vasculitis (29% vs. 6%, P=0.04), macular edema (40% vs. 4%, P=0.001), and optic disc edema (50% vs. 15%, P=0.02). A high number of recurrences was also associated with glaucoma (1.0 vs. 3.0, P<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, low baseline visual acuity, presence of retinal vasculitis, and high number of recurrences were independent risk factors for ocular hypertension in our patients followed for Behçet's disease. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma can complicate the management of Behçet's disease. This glaucoma will be more difficult to manage in this delicate pathological context. It requires special vigilance in patients with severe posterior segment inflammation, to institute effective management to avoid its potentially blinding complications.
Ophthalmology unit A, hôpital des spécialités, faculty of medicine and pharmacy, university Mohammed V, Rabat, Maroc. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.Full article
9.4.6 Glaucomas associated with inflammation, uveitis (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.4 Glaucomas associated with other ocular and systemic disorders)
9.4.15 Glaucoma in relation to systemic disease (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.4 Glaucomas associated with other ocular and systemic disorders)