PRECIS: The surgical outcome of iStent inject devices is associated with device protrusion within the anterior chamber. Schlemm canal (SC) dilatation has a prognostic value. iStent inject devices do not move within the first year after implantation. INTRODUCTION: The iStent inject is a device designed to be implanted ab-interno through the trabecular meshwork. The present study follows up on our preliminary report, using successive in vivo anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) imaging to analyze the associations between stent positioning, iridocorneal angle structures, and surgical outcomes. METHODS: In total, 54 eyes of 42 patients (73.3±7.4 y) with cataract and mild-to-moderate open-angle glaucoma were examined in this prospective study. All patients underwent implantation of 2 iStent inject devices combined with phacoemulsification. Patients were followed up over a 12-month period. AS-OCT was performed after 3 and 12 months. Thirty unoperated fellow eyes served as control eyes. RESULTS: Intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 16.5±4.2 mm Hg at baseline to 15.1±3.7 mm Hg at 12 months (-8.7%; P=0.004), while medications decreased from 1.8±1.0 to 0.5±0.9 (-72.2%; P<0.001). Unmedicated IOP≤18 mm Hg was achieved in 58.8% of operated eyes. No sight-threatening complications were reported. On AS-OCT, 44.9% of devices were buried within the trabeculum. Device position was unchanged between scans. Regression analysis elicited significant predictors: SC dilatation effect [risk ratio (RR)=0.230; P=0.003], greatest SC diameter (RR=0.991; P=0.049), extrusion of the most anterior device (RR=0.993; P=0.012), gonioscopically visible devices (RR=0.406; P=0.040), baseline treatments (RR=2.214; P=0.001), and baseline IOP (RR=0.184; P=0.006). Endothelial cell density decreased by 14.6% at 12 months (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the IOP-lowering and medication-lowering potential of iStent inject surgery in primary open-angle and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. It confirms that surgical outcomes are positively associated with device protrusion within the anterior chamber, and suggests SC dilatation effect as a favorable prognostic indicator. It shows that stents are stable in time, highlighting the importance of the initial implantation location.