Patients with chronic anterior uveitis are at particularly high risk of developing secondary glaucoma when corticosteroids [e.g., dexamethasone (Dex)] are used or when inflammatory activity has regressed. Macrophage migration into the eye increases when secondary glaucoma develops and may play an important role in the development of secondary glaucoma. Our aim was to evaluate if increased hydrostatic pressure and corticosteroids could induce changes in macrophages phenotype. By using a pressure chamber cell culture system, we assessed the effect of increased hydrostatic pressure (HP), inflammation, and immunosuppression (Dex) on the M1/M2 phenotype of macrophages. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were stimulated with medium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/ml), Dex (200 ng/ml), or LPS + Dex and incubated with different HP (0, 20, or 60 mmHg) for 2 or 7 days. The numbers of CD86+/CD206- (M1 phenotype), CD86-/CD206+ (M2 phenotype), CD86+/CD206+ (intermediate phenotype), F4/80+/TNF-α+, and F4/80+/IL-10+ macrophages were determined by flow cytometry. TNF-α and IL-10 levels in cell culture supernatants were quantified by ELISA. TNF-α, IL-10, fibronectin, and collagen IV expression in BMDMs were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Higher HP polarizes macrophages primarily to an M1 phenotype (LPS, 60 vs. 0 mmHg, d2: = 0.0034) with less extra cellular matrix (ECM) production and secondary to an M2 phenotype (medium, 60 vs. 0 mmHg, d7: = 0.0089) (medium, 60 vs. 20 mmHg, d7: = 0.0433) with enhanced ECM production. Dex induces an M2 phenotype (Dex, medium vs. Dex, d2: < 0.0001; d7: < 0.0001) with more ECM production. Higher HP further increased M2 polarization of Dex-treated macrophages (Dex, 60 vs. 0 mmHg, d2: = 0.0417; d7: = 0.0454). These changes in the M1/M2 phenotype by high HP or Dex treatment may play a role in the pathogenesis of secondary uveitic glaucoma- or glucocorticoid (GC)-induced glaucoma.
Ophthalmology and Ophtha-Lab at St. Franziskus Hospital, Münster, Germany.Full article
9.4.6 Glaucomas associated with inflammation, uveitis (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.4 Glaucomas associated with other ocular and systemic disorders)
3.10 Immunobiology (Part of: 3 Laboratory methods)
9.4.1 Steroid-induced glaucoma (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.4 Glaucomas associated with other ocular and systemic disorders)