BACKGROUND: Adherence to chronic therapies is crucial to prevent the progression of disease, such as glaucoma. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated them using real-world data in Japan. This study aimed to evaluate Japanese patients' adherence to fixed- and unfixed-combination eye drops as a second-line therapy for glaucoma in real-world practice. METHODS: This retrospective, non-interventional cohort study utilized a commercially available Japanese healthcare database (MinaCare database). Medical/pharmacy claims data were collected from 2011 to 2016. The primary endpoint was adherence to medications, assessed by proportion of days covered (PDC) with medication during a 12-month post-index period. Meanwhile, the secondary endpoints included the persistence rate. RESULTS: A total of 738 patients were included in this study: 309 and 329 in the fixed- and unfixed-combination cohorts, respectively. Prostaglandin analog (PG)/β-blocker (BB) was most commonly claimed in 241/309 (78.0%) patients in the fixed-combination cohort. In the unfixed-combination cohort, PG and BB were claimed in 130/329 (39.5%) patients, whereas PG and α2-agonist were claimed in 87/329 (26.4%) patients. Patients were more adherent to the fixed-combination than the unfixed-combinations (mean PDCs [SD], 79.1% [32.1] vs. 62.2% [38.0]; P < 0.0001). The proportion of patients with good adherence (PDC ≥ 80%) was also higher in the fixed-combination cohort (69.6%) than in the unfixed-combination cohort (48.6%) (P < 0.0001). During the 12-month post-index period, the persistence rate was higher in the fixed-combination cohort than in the unfixed-combination cohort (47.6% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 41.9-53.0] vs. 24.9% [95% CI: 20.4-29.7], P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Japanese patients with glaucoma preferred the fixed-combination therapies over the unfixed-combination therapies. Hence, fixed-combination therapies would contribute to the improvement of adherence.
Medical Affairs, Pfizer Japan Inc., 3-22-7 Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, 151-8589, Japan.