See also comment(s) by Tanuj Dada & Saurabh Verma •
PURPOSE: To investigate seasonal variation in optic disc hemorrhage (DH) by review of fundus photographs representative of 2 calendar years (2019 and 2020). DESIGN: Retrospective, observational trend study. METHODS: Patients who visited the Glaucoma Clinic of Seoul National University Hospital and underwent fundus photography were included. All available stereo disc photographs and red-free retinal nerve fiber layer photographs taken between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The monthly incidence rate of DH was determined by reference to the photographs. Seasonal temperature information and patients' intraocular pressure (IOP) information were obtained, organized, and analyzed. RESULTS: Fundus images of 13,514 eyes were reviewed, and 454 eyes were confirmed to have DH. Poisson regression analyses revealed that as the temperature (T) increased by 1 °C, the DH risk ratio was reduced to 0.979 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.969-0.989, P < .01). The DH incidence ratio was 1.53 (95% CI 1.23-1.91, P < .01) for the T <10 °C group relative to the T ≥20 °C group. The IOP of the patients with DH in winter was significantly higher than that measured in summer. CONCLUSION: DH is affected by temperature, and as such, shows seasonal variability. This variability is believed to be caused by temperature-related factors such as IOP or hematological factors. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.