PURPOSE: To compare the average intraocular pressure (IOP) among smokers, past smokers, and never smokers using the American Academy of Ophthalmology Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS®) Registry. DESIGN: Retrospective database study of the IRIS® Registry data. PARTICIPANTS: Intelligent Research in Sight Registry patients who were seen by an eye care provider during 2017. METHODS: Patients were divided into current smoker, past smoker, and never smoker categories. The IOP was based on an average measurement, and separate analyses were performed in patients with and without a glaucoma diagnosis based on International Classification of Diseases (Ninth Edition and Tenth Edition) codes. Stratified, descriptive statistics by glaucoma status were determined, and the relationship between smoking and IOP was assessed with a multivariate linear regression model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean IOP. RESULTS: A total of 12 535 013 patients were included. Compared with never smokers, current and past smokers showed a statistically significantly higher IOP by 0.92 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.95 mmHg) and 0.77 mmHg (95% CI, 0.75-0.79 mmHg), respectively, after adjusting for age, gender, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma surgery, cataract surgery, and first-order interactions. In addition, the difference in IOP between current and never smokers was the highest in the fourth decade, regardless of the glaucoma status (glaucoma group, 1.14 mmHg [95% CI, 1.00-1.29 mmHg]; without glaucoma group, 0.68 mmHg [95% CI, 0.65-0.71 mmHg]). CONCLUSIONS: Current smokers and past smokers have higher IOP than patients who never smoked. This difference is higher in patients with an underlying glaucoma diagnosis.
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.Full article
6.1.3 Factors affecting IOP (Part of: 6 Clinical examination methods > 6.1 Intraocular pressure measurement; factors affecting IOP)
9.2.2 Other risk factors for glaucoma (Part of: 9 Clinical forms of glaucomas > 9.2 Primary open angle glaucomas)