Eye drops containing hydrophilic drugs are commonly used to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients, but compliance to the treatement is commonly reduced by frequent dosing and eventual systemic side effects. Sustained-release drug delivery systems, such as ocular inserts, can reduce dosing, limit systemic exposure, reduce side effects, and, then, improve patient adherence to therapy. Here, we developed and evaluated chitosan/hydroxyethyl cellulose-based ocular inserts for sustained release of dorzolamide, a hydrophilic drug. Dorzolamide inserts (DI) were produced by solvent/casting method and characterized by various physicochemical techniques. Pharmacokinetics studies were performed using scintigraphic images and ex vivo biodistribution. The effectiveness of inserts was tested in glaucomatous rats. Characterization studies showed that the drug strongly interacted with the polymeric matrix, but in vitro results showed that DI took only 3 h to release 75% of dorzolamide entraped. However, scintigraphic images and ex vivo biodistribution studies revealed that more than 50% of Tc-dorzolamide remained in the eye after 18 h of DI administration, while only about 30% of the drug remained in the eye after drops instilation. DI exerted significant hypotensive effect for two weeks, after single administration, while IOP values remained high in placebo and untreated groups. Eye drops were effective only during the treatment period. Only DI treatment prevented retinal ganglion cells death. Altogether, these findings evidenced the potential application of polymeric-based inserts for sustained release of dorzolamide in glaucoma management.
Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address: email@example.com.Full article
11.5.2 Topical (Part of: 11 Medical treatment > 11.5 Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors)
11.16 Vehicles, delivery systems, pharmacokinetics, formulation (Part of: 11 Medical treatment)